Over the past few years, a number of new tests have been devised to aid the diagnosis of bladder cancer. These tests include the bladder-tumor-associated antigen test (BTATM), the BTA stat test, the BTA TRAK® test, the fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products test (FDPTM), and the NMP22TM assay. All of these tests can be performed on urine samples. The BTA® test was designed to detect proteins that are released by reproduction of bladder tumor cells, and its interpretation does not require a technician or specialist. The BTA® test significantly identifies superficial (surface) bladder tumors by changing color. The top of the BTA® test strip turns yellow when positive for bladder cancer, and it turns green when negative. The BTA stat test is an immunologic assay that can be used to identify recurrent bladder cancer. The FDP® test detects the breakdown products of blood-clotting proteins (fibrin, fibrinogen), which are increased in the urine in the presence of bladder cancer. The NMP22TM assay measures specific proteins from the nuclear matrix (cell center). It can detect transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) with a sensitivity of roughly 67%, meaning that 67% of existing TCCs are detected. But, perhaps more importantly, the NMP22TM assay it is able to predict the recurrence of bladder cancer For more information go to http:///bladdercancer/.
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The word "opiates" refers to all the products derived from the Papaver Somniferum plant, commonly known as the opium poppy plant. Natural opiates such as codeine and morphine are derived directly from the plant, while others such as oxycodone and heroin are further derived from natural opiates, and are called synthetic opiates. Some opiates have found great importance in the medical field and are used in drug manufacture, such as oxycodone and hydrocodone. However some like heroin are used for recreational use, but are labelled as contraband due to their potency. Regardless of their type, all these opiates can cause addiction when they are used in big doses over long periods of time; such addiction is extremely difficult to break without special help.