In addition to the mentioned side effects several others have been reported. In both males and females acne are frequently reported, as well as hypertrophy of sebaceous glands, increased tallow excretion, hair loss, and alopecia. There is some evidence that anabolic steroid abuse may affect the immune system, leading to a decreased effectiveness of the defense system. Steroid use decreases the glucose tolerance, while there is an increase in insulin resistance. These changes mimic Type II diabetes. These changes seem to be reversible after abstention from the drugs.
AB - The human hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis maintains testosterone production and spermatogenesis through an intricate feedforward and feedback system involving the intermittent exchange of neurohormonal signals. The chief components of this ensemble are hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone, pituitary luteinizing hormone, and testicular sex steroids (testosterone and estradiol). Epidemiological data and clinical experiments jointly indicate that healthy older men have lower bioavailable and free testosterone concentrations, higher sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations, and decreased daily testosterone secretion rates, compared with young individuals. Aging also disrupts quantifiable synchrony among sleep stage, the secretion of luteinizing hormone, testosterone, prolactin, and follicle-stimulating hormone, and the oscillations in nocturnal penile tumescence, denoting erosion of coordinate central neurohormonal outflow. How age affects spermatogenesis in healthy populations is not known. This article summarizes how aging in men is marked by multisite regulatory failure within the gonadal axis.