The Union Association survived for only one season (1884), as did the Players' League (1890), an attempt to return to the National Association structure of a league controlled by the players themselves. Both leagues are considered major leagues by many baseball researchers because of the perceived high caliber of play and the number of star players featured. However, some researchers have disputed the major league status of the Union Association, pointing out that franchises came and went and contending that the St. Louis club, which was deliberately "stacked" by the league's president (who owned that club), was the only club that was anywhere close to major league caliber.
The ball was also hard to hit because pitchers could manipulate it before a pitch. For example, the spitball pitch was permitted in baseball until 1921. Pitchers often marked the ball, scuffed it, spat on it—anything they could to influence the ball's motion. This made the ball "dance" and curve much more than it does now, making it more difficult to hit. Tobacco juice was often added to the ball as well, which discolored it. This made the ball difficult to see, especially since baseball parks did not have lights until the late 1930s. This made both hitting and fielding more difficult.
Introduction: The UEMS and ERA-EDTA Alliance
Jorge B. Cannata-Andía , Oviedo, Spain
The current status of European Nephrology Education
Talia Weinstein , Tel Aviv, Israel
Recruiting high calibre fellows into Nephrology:
Challenges and Solutions
Nadine Vogelsang , Münster, Germany
Progressing training harmonisation.
The “European Certifi cate in Nephrology”
David Lappin , Galway, Ireland
Knowledge-based examination in Nephrology:
The UK experience
Jonathan G. Fox , Glasgow, United Kingdom
Mapping future progress. Panel and audience general discussion lead by Anibal Ferreira , Lisbon, Portugal and Itzchak Slotki , Jerusalem, Israel