Steroid hepatopathy in dogs

Viral infections of the heart can lead to inflammation of the muscular layer of the heart and subsequently contribute to the development of heart failure. Heart damage can predispose a person to develop heart failure later in life and has many causes including systemic viral infections (., HIV ), chemotherapeutic agents such as daunorubicin and trastuzumab , and abuse of drugs such as alcohol and methamphetamine . Additionally, infiltrative disorders such as amyloidosis and connective tissue diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus have similar consequences. Obstructive sleep apnea (a condition of sleep wherein disordered breathing overlaps with obesity, hypertension, and/or diabetes) is regarded as an independent cause of heart failure.

Craig A. Clifford, DVM, MS, DACVIM (Oncology), is the director of clinical studies at Hope Veterinary Specialists in Malvern, Pennsylvania, where he also serves as a medical oncologist. Dr. Clifford earned his DVM from Mississippi State University and his MS in animal science/virology from University of Delaware, then completed an internship and a medical oncology residency at University of Pennsylvania. He has authored and coauthored more than 50 papers and book chapters. Dr. Clifford created the Veterinary Cancer Society’s resident review session and the Northeast Veterinary Cooperative Oncology Group and has served on the VCS executive board, ACVIM Examination Rating Committee, Residency Training and Credentials Committee, Oncology Pathology Working Group, Standards of Excellence in Residency Education Task Force, and Australian Scientist’s Oncology Specialty Examination. Dr. Clifford also serves on the Scientific Advisory Boards for Industry. 

There has been cases which did show chronic elevation of the liver enzymes over weeks to months), symptoms characteristic of liver disease ill defined malaise), and a response of anti inflammatory treatment to limit the ongoing inflammation and scarring of the liver. At this time recommendations
for treatment are that moderate or intermittent disease should only receive supportive therapy or basic nursing, while deteriorating chronic cases should receive steroid based anti inflammatory. If the case shows poor response, biopsies should be referred to a pathologist for evaluation in an attempt to find the underlying cause. In some cases it may be necessary to use strong immune suppressant drugs to stop the destruction of the liver.

There are two isoenzymes (products of different genes) and several isoforms (produced from post-translational modification of isoenyzmes) of ALP. The isoenzymes are produced from intestinal and tissue non-specific ALP genes and differ in amino acid sequence. Isoforms differ in catalytic sites and activity, immunogenicity, and electrophoretic mobility. The major isoforms that can be measured in animals are liver-ALP (L-ALP), corticosteroid-ALP (C-ALP; only in dogs), bone-ALP (B-ALP) and intestinal-ALP (I-ALP), but there are others including leukocyte-ALP and placental-ALP.

Steroid hepatopathy in dogs

steroid hepatopathy in dogs

There are two isoenzymes (products of different genes) and several isoforms (produced from post-translational modification of isoenyzmes) of ALP. The isoenzymes are produced from intestinal and tissue non-specific ALP genes and differ in amino acid sequence. Isoforms differ in catalytic sites and activity, immunogenicity, and electrophoretic mobility. The major isoforms that can be measured in animals are liver-ALP (L-ALP), corticosteroid-ALP (C-ALP; only in dogs), bone-ALP (B-ALP) and intestinal-ALP (I-ALP), but there are others including leukocyte-ALP and placental-ALP.

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