Use of QVAR with a spacer device in children less than 5 years of age is not recommended. In vitro dose characterization studies were performed with QVAR 40 mcg/actuation with the OptiChamber and AeroChamber Plus ® spacer utilizing inspiratory flows representative of children under 5 years old. These studies indicated that the amount of medication delivered through the spacing device decreased rapidly with increasing wait times of 5 to 10 seconds as shown in Table 2. If QVAR is used with a spacer device, it is important to inhale immediately.
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After an introductory section that summarizes the characteristics of infusion reactions and different approaches to classifying them, this review will focus on commonly used conventional cytotoxic drugs with a moderate to high incidence of infusion reactions, and the ways in which these reactions can be treated and/or prevented. Infusion reactions in patients receiving therapeutic monoclonal antibodies for cancer treatment are discussed separately, as are other cutaneous adverse effects associated with chemotherapy. (See "Infusion-related reactions to therapeutic monoclonal antibodies used for cancer therapy" and "Cutaneous side effects of conventional chemotherapy agents" .)