That RNA can act as a template and also now exhibits catalytic activity fuelled hypotheses for the evolution of an “RNA world”. 34 In this scenario RNA is the primary polymer of life that replicates itself. DNA and proteins were later refinements. So the first genes were short strands of RNA that reproduced themselves, perhaps on clay surfaces. This conjecture is strengthened by the fact that in cells today there are segments of some eukaryotic pre-rRNAs which can cleave themselves off and join the two cut ends together to reform the mature rRNA. In 1982 Thomas Cech and his colleagues at the University of Colorado discovered this can take place in the absence of protein in the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila . 35 Just as remarkable are the small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs), which complex with protein to form small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs; pronounced “snurps”). Particles called spliceosomes convert pre-mRNA to mRNA. 36 Other ribozymes include the hammerhead variety and RNAse P, which generates the 5 ' ends of tRNAs. The former are found in certain plant viruses. Origin-of-life theories see prebiotic significance in these ‘vestigial’ post-translational mechanisms.
Medicines and their possible side effects can affect individual people in different ways. The following are some of the side effects that are known to be associated with this medicine. Because a side effect is stated here, it does not mean that all people using this medicine will experience that or any side effect.
* Change in menstrual bleeding, such as frequent, prolonged or heavy bleeding, spotting, lighter bleeding, irregular bleeding or stopping of bleeding
* Development of fluid filled sacks (cysts) in the ovaries
* Excessive fluid retention in the body tissues, resulting in swelling (oedema)
* Weight gain
* Mood swings
* Lower abdominal pain
* Back pain
* Breast pain
* Painful menstrual bleeding
* Vaginal discharge
* Inflammation of the cervix
* Hair loss or hair growth
* Skin reactions such as rash or itching
* Genital infections, including pelvic inflammatory disease
* Decreased sex drive
* Abdominal bloating
The side effects listed above may not include all of the side effects reported by the drug's more information about any other possible risks associated with this medicine, please read the information provided with the medicine or consult your doctor or pharmacist.